Shandong is one of the birthplaces of the ancient Chinese culture. The Yiyuan ape-man fossil proves there were human beings in the area some 400,000-500,000 years ago. The Beixin Culture, Dawenkou Culture and Longshan Culture found in the province prove that between 7,000 to 4,000 years ago, the Dongyi people had changed from a matrilineal to a patrilineal society and even to a class society. Some other historical finds in Shandong include Dawenkou and Longshan pottery characters, the earliest Chinese characters discovered in China, Chengziya Longshan Ancient Town, one of the earliest cities in China, the old Great Wall of the Qi State, the earliest defense works in China, the tombs of Han Dynasty Kings at Luozhuang, one of China`s 10 Most Remarkable Archaeological Discoveries in 2000. Besides, Shandong is one of the birthplaces of ceramics and silks.
Muyu Stone: it is also called Muwen Stone (stone with grain of wood). According to prospecting of geological experts, this kind of stone belongs to marine deposit, 550,000,000 years before present; the stone takes on brown color, and it is smooth in surface, delicate in texture and clear in grain; therefore, it is superior natural material for handicraft. Moreover, using this kind of stone to make health protection tea set can inhibit tea from degenerating; in addition, it can produce some microelements and mineral matter good for human body, so it has the functions of accelerating the development of human body, fighting against senium, preventing hypertension and arteriosclerosis; it is even sold to Taiwan and Southeast Asia.
Black Pottery: black pottery originated from ancient pottery of our country. It was popular in the patriarchy period of the primitive society 4,000 years ago, and it was the important sign dividing the New Stone Age in to two periods. Jinan black pottery is made by hand, combining traditional crafts with modern technology; the fired black pottery is elegant in mould and solid in texture.
Embroider: Jinan Embroider, also called Lu Embroider, it is the famous traditional embroider of Jinan, and it is also one of the earliest embroiders recorded in the history of the embroider art. Jinan Embroider is famous for its silk and hair embroidery, especially hair embroidery. Hair embroidery use man`s hair as embroidery threads, and has delicate craft; the embroidered Chinese ink paintings all have elegant style and great liveliness.
Molding: a kind of folk art, it is also called Flour Molding, or “molding figures with polished glutinous rice”. This kind of molding originates from Heze, Shandong, and it has a history of more than 200 years. After it was introduced into Jinan, this art was studied by such old handicraftsman as Li Junxing; gradually, a molding art with unique Jinan style was formed. Those clay figures all have bright colors and are made with delicate craft; made through twisting, rubbing and kneading with fingers as well as through rubbing, cutting and pointing with knives, fine-toothed combs and needles, the figures are as lively as real people.
Lv Opera:a kind of regional opera of Shandong, it is also Dressing Dulcimer, Donkey Opera and Dragging Opera, and it is evolved from Shandong Qinshu. After 1949, it was officially called Lv Opera. Jinan dialect is the major language in spoken parts of Lv Opera; the performance mainly reflects people`s daily life; it is one of the major regional operas of Shandong. Lv Opera troupes of province level or city level have been awarded many times in our country. Modern plays of Lv Opera like Remarriage of Li Ersao, Two Neighboring Fields, Half of the Sky, and traditional plays like Borrow a New Year, A forced Marriage and Marriage Exchange between Two Sisters were all showed on TV.
Shanghe Guzi Yangge: a folk group dance. There are 60 participants at least, more than 100 participants at most; its roles can be divided into 2 kinds, namely, internal role and external role; the performance procedure has 2 parts: walking and performing. Jinan Shanghe Guzi yangge originated in the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1126 AD.), and reached its splendid summit in the Qing Dynasty (1616 -1911 AD.). Before 1949, it experienced a period of downhill; after being explored and reorganized, it appeared on the stage again, and it was awarded many times in national folk dance contests. In 2006, it was chosen as the first group of national immaterial cultural heritage.
Shandong Patter: a kind of rap art with rhyming and reciting style, it is also called “bamboo patter” or “clownery patter”. It originated in the late Qing Dynasty (1616 -1911 AD.), under the reign of Emperor Daoguang and Emperor Xianfeng. At first, it was popular in the country area, and it was introduced to Jinan in the 1930s. Shandong Patter combines singing and speaking, superior in narrating, and its singing is quite flexible; its style is rough and brief, naivete and humorous; it is enrooted in the folk, and has many talented actors; now its influence has spread all over the world.